Internet-Draft FCAPS with Optical ACTN April 2024
Farrel, et al. Expires 14 October 2024 [Page]
CCAMP Working Group
Intended Status:
Standards Track
A. Farrel
Old Dog Consulting
D. King
Old Dog Consulting
X. Zhao
C. Yu
Huawei Technologies

Integrating YANG Configuration and Management into an Abstraction and Control of TE Networks (ACTN) System for Optical Networks


Many network technologies are operated as Traffic Engineered (TE) networks. Optical networks are a particular case, and have complex technology-specific details.

Abstraction and Control of TE Networks (ACTN) is a management architecture that abstracts TE network resources to provide a limited network view for customers to request and self-manage connectivity services. It also provides functional components to orchestrate and operate the network.

Management of legacy optical networks is often provided via Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and Security (known as FCAPS) using mechanisms such as the Multi-Technology Operations System Interface (MTOSI) and the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). FCAPS can form a critical part of configuration management and service assurance for network operations. However, the ACTN architecture as described in RFC 8453 does not include consideration of FCAPS.

This document enhances the ACTN architecture as applied to optical networks by introducing support for FCAPS. It considers which elements of existing IETF YANG work can be used to solve existing scenarios and emerging technologies, and what new work may be needed. In doing so, this document adds fine-grained network management to the ACTN architecture. This enhanced architecture may then be used to evolve networks from CORBA and MTOSI FCAPS interfaces to IETF-based YANG and RESTful API capabilities.

Status of This Memo

This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

This Internet-Draft will expire on 14 October 2024.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

Abstraction and Control of Traffic Engineering Networks (ACTN) [RFC8453] is an architecture that simplifies and optimises the management and control of network resources to deliver connectivity services in Traffic Engineering (TE) networks including optical networks. ACTN abstracts and controls TE resources to enable end-to-end service provisioning and management across multiple network domains. It provides a way to orchestrate and automate the management of network resources, including connectivity and bandwidth, to meet the requirements of specific services or applications.

ACTN in an optical network leverages SDN concepts to achieve its objectives. By applying SDN principles, such as centralised control and programmability, to the transport layer, ACTN enables efficient orchestration and service provisioning in a multi-domain environment. ACTN adds a higher-level framework and management capabilities specifically tailored for TE transport networks, including the abstraction of network resources, service provisioning, and resource optimisation.

The term FCAPS [M-3060] is used in network management and stands for Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and Security. FCAPS is a widely accepted framework that categorises different aspects of network management and provides a structured approach to managing and maintaining networks, addressing various operational and maintenance areas.

While ACTN primarily deals with the abstraction and control of TE networks for service provisioning, FCAPS covers broader aspects of network management. In practice, while ACTN provides a suitable architecture for requesting and monitoring connectivity services in optical networks, operators would also like to leverage the FCAPS framework for specific operational tasks and management activities.

ACTN and FCAPS are not mutually exclusive, and this document explains how FCAPS can be integrated into the ACTN architecture as applied to optical networks. It considers which elements of IETF work can be used, and what new work is needed.

This enhanced ACTN architecture is known as ACTN Fine-Grain Network Management (ACTN FGNM). It provides an evolution path for FCAPS OSS functions from Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) [CORBA] interfaces and the Multi-Technology Operations System Interface (MTOSI) architecture [MTOSI], to IETF YANG-based models and RESTful APIs.

It should be noted that optical networks have a lot of details that are specific to the transmission medium. Different networks contain different physical transmission components that need to be managed in very specific ways. This can make generalisation of configuration and management hard, and means that the nature of ACTN FGNM is different in an optical network than it might be in a more general (and specifically, packet-based) TE network.

1.1. FCAPS Transport Network Management Approaches

ITU-T G.805 [G-805] specifies the architecture and framework for the management of transport (i.e., sub-IP) networks. G.805 provides guidelines and principles for managing network resources and services in a coordinated and efficient manner.

The TM Forum (TMF) has developed its own set of standards and frameworks for managing telecommunications networks and services. Specifically, the TMF developed the Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) model and informed ITU-T M.3060 [M-3060] to align with G.805. TMN is a framework that defines a comprehensive set of management functions and interfaces for network operations and service management, that is, FCAPS.

More recently, ITU-T M.3041 [M-3041] introduced a framework for smart operation, management, and maintenance (SOMM). M.3041 provides the characteristics, scenarios, and the functional architecture of SOMM to support service operation, network management, and infrastructure maintenance for both traditional physical networks and for software-defined networking. It is applicable to network function virtualisation (non-SDN/VFN) and to SDN/NFV aware networks.

This document shows how the ACTN architecture can accommodate the principles of G.805 and M.3041 to include FCAPS capabilities. It outlines existing IETF mechanisms, protocols and data models, and indicates requirements where gaps exist.

1.2. Configuration Management

MTOSI [MTOSI] is a standard in the telecommunications industry that provides a common framework for operations support systems (OSSes) to interact with various network elements and technologies. It defines a set of standardized interfaces and protocols to enable the integration of different OSS components.

It contains several capabilities and key features:

  • Service Management: It focuses on service management, allowing operators to efficiently provision, activate, and manage services on the network;

  • Interoperability: MTOSI promotes interoperability between different vendors' OSS components, reducing the complexity of integrating heterogeneous network elements;

  • Common Data Model: It defines a common data model for information exchanged between OSS components, ensuring consistency and accuracy in operations.

These features must be introduced into ACTN as ACTN FGNM, to enable automation of operations, which is crucial for managing large, multi-technology, complex, telecommunications networks.

Increasingly, network OSSes will require atomic-level views of network devices and interfaces, instead of only abstracted views and interactions. This will allow ACTN-based systems to leverage inventory management, device-level and interface-level views, and network configuration operations, via RESTful APIs instead of legacy CORBA-based APIs.

1.3. Service Assurance

Service Assurance refers to the activities and processes that ensure the quality, availability, and performance of services delivered by a network. Those processes monitor and manage the end-to-end service experience, and ensure that Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and customer expectations are met.

By applying RESTful FCAPS functions through the ACTN framework, network operators and service providers can address different aspects of network management to support Service Assurance. This helps them detect and resolve faults, manage configurations, track resource usage, optimise performance, and enhance security, all of which contribute to delivering reliable and high-quality services to customers.

Not all Service Assurance requirements can be provided via existing ACTN YANG models. Fine-grain detail may also be required, supplementing abstract resource models with inventory-based models such as [I-D.ietf-ivy-network-inventory-yang]. This would provide an atomic-level view of network devices and components, instead of only abstracted views. Note that not all FCAPS functions require fine-grain views and control: a mix of abstracted and detailed views will sometimes be needed.

1.4. Motivation and Scope

Operators who manage optical transport networks can leverage ACTN for resource abstraction and service provisioning. At the same time, they can utilise the G.805 architecture and the TMN model to establish effective network management practices, which will facilitate service assurance. Combining the two management approaches aligns with best-practice industry standards and allows adoption of emerging ACTN-based abstraction and control techniques.

This document studies the FCAPS requirements in the context of ACTN functional components. It analyses the ACTN interfaces from a management operations perspective. It identifies suitable IETF data models that meet FCAPS requirements that can be utilised in the ACTN architecture to support optical transport networks. Gaps and requirements are identified where necessary so additional models may be developed.

2. Extending the ACTN Architecture to Include FCAPS

Figure 1 shows the ACTN architecture from [RFC8453] enhanced to provide FCAPS support. The Customer Network Controller (CNC), Multi-domain Service Coordinator (MDSC), and Provisioning Network Controller (PNC) are functional components of ACTN, as described in RFC 8453. There are two ACTN interfaces between the components: the CNC-MDSC Interface (CMI) and the MDSC-PNC Interface (MPI). In ACTN, the CMI and MPI are realised using a combination of IETF data models.

                                |   CNC   |
   Boundary                          |
   between   ========================|==========
   Customer &                        | CMI
   Network Operator                  |
                     Policy  +---------------+
                  -----------|     MDSC      |
                 /           +---------------+
       +-------------+               |
       |     OSS     |               | MPI+ FCAPS Extensions
       +-------------+               |
                \       +---------------------+
                 -------|  Domain             |
                  FCAPS |  Controller         |
                        |                     |
                        | +-----------+       |
                        | | NMS/EMS   |       |
                        | |        .......... |
                        | |        :  |     : |
                        | |        :  | PNC : |
                        | |        :..|.....: |
                        | |           |       |
                        | +-----------+       |
                        |                     |
                               /       |
                              /        |
                           -----       |
                          (     )      |
                         ( Phys. )     |
                          ( Net )    -----
                           -----    (     )
                                   ( Phys. )
                                    ( Net )

Figure 1: The ACTN Architecture Enhanced for FCAPS

Figure 1 shows the ACTN functional components as described in [RFC8453], but also introduces some common management system components. The Operational Support System (OSS) is the overarching management component that the operator uses to coordinate customers, services, and the network, and to apply policies across the network. The Network Management System (NMS) allows an operator to manage a network or set of network elements as a single unit. At the same time, the Element Management System (EMS) applies configuration and management to individual network elements.

As described in [RFC8453], the function of the PNC may be provided by an NMS or an EMS. Thus, Figure 1 shows the PNC overlapping with the NMS/EMS. To avoid confusion between the three possible components (NMS, EMS, PNC) that might all be used to operate the devices in the network, this document groups all of their function together and uses the term Domain Controller (a term used in [RFC7426] and [RFC8309]).

In a conventional management system, the OSS uses an interface with the Domain Controller to exchange FCAPS information. This interface has previously been based on CORBA/XML.

Furthermore, in an ACTN system, the OSS is likely the point of origin for policy instructions that guide the MDSC in orchestrating customer service requests and configuring the network.

In [RFC8453] the MPI is used by the MDSC to instruct the PNCs about how the network must be configured to deliver the customers' services. The MPI also reports to the MDSC on the status of provisioning commands and the availability of network resources. However, up to now, the MDSC has had no visibility into the majority of the FCAPS functions and has, therefore, had limited reactive and proactive abilities.

Instead of only using abstracted Tunnel and Topology YANG models, the capability to support network inventory and device models is required, facilitating more detailed modeling and configuration management of network resource information.

This document examines how the MPI may be enhanced with extensions that utilise current YANG models, such as inventory, as well as with future YANG-based data models to deliver extensions that provide RESTful FCAPS support.

3. Functionality at the MPI

This section describes the MPI as specified before the addition of FCAPS capabilities.

3.1. Data Models at the MPI

Figure 2 lists the data models that can be used at the MPI for abstraction and control of underlying optical networks.

Category | Data Model                | Document
Topology | ietf-network              | RFC 8345
         | ietf-network-topology     | RFC 8345
         | ietf-te-topology          | RFC 8795
         | ietf-wson-topology        | RFC 9094
         | ietf-otn-topology         | draft-ietf-ccamp-otn-topo-yang
         | ietf-flex-grid-topology   | draft-ietf-ccamp-flexigrid-yang
         | ietf-optical-impairement- | draft-ietf-ccamp-optical-
         |                  topology |        impairment-topology-yang
Tunnel   | ietf-te                   | draft-ietf-teas-yang-te
         | ietf-wson-tunnel          | draft-ietf-ccamp-wson-tunnel-
         |                           |                           model
         | ietf-otn-tunnel           | draft-ietf-ccamp-otn-tunnel-
         |                           |                           model
         | ietf-flexi-grid-media-    | draft-ietf-ccamp-flexigrid-
         |                   channel |              media-channel-yang
Inventory| TBA                       | TBA
         |                           |

Figure 2: ACTN MPI YANG Models

3.2. Abstraction and Control at the MPI

The abstraction of TE modeling is described in Section 3 of [RFC8795]. The major objects that are modeled include TE topology, TE node, TE link, TE Link Termination Point (LTP), TE Tunnel Termination Point (TTP). Also included in the modeling are transitional TE link, TE node connectivity matrix, and TTP Local Link Connectivity List to describe the multiplexing relationship of links. These TE concepts are generic, but they are also applicable within an optical network. The MPI deals in abstracted TE network concepts and so can be realised using the YANG models listed in Section 3.1 to expose the TE modeled objects that can be enhanced using YANG model augmentations to make them specific to optical technologies.

Specific extensions to the abstract TE model for optical networks are provided in a series of documents ([RFC9094], [I-D.ietf-ccamp-otn-topo-yang], [I-D.ietf-ccamp-flexigrid-yang], [I-D.ietf-ccamp-optical-impairment-topology-yang]). This list of documents arises because the different optical network technologies demand different models for the varying characteristics of the equipment.

4. Introduction to FCAPS

4.1. Functionalities Covered by FCAPS

Although the building blocks of FCAPS are Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and Security, the important functions for integration within an ACTN system are Configuration, Alarm Management, and Performance Management. All three of these functions are underpinned by Inventory Management.

  • Inventory Management describes all objects involved in the network, including hardware resources (such as network elements, chassis, slots, boards, ports, optical modules, and cables, etc.) and logical resource objects used for service provisioning.
  • The basic Configuration requirement in ACTN is to configure end-to- end paths across the transport network based on the requirements of users.
  • Alarm Management refers to how the system enables and disables alarm reporting, collects alarm information, and processes that information to relate it to the connections that are managed by ACTN. When a network is running, the Domain Manager collects alarm information from devices or processes connection-related alarms and reports the alarms to the OSS of operator. So that Operations and Management engineers can detect and rectify network faults in time. The main functionalities include alarm retrieval, alarm handling, and alarm control.
  • Performance Monitoring enables engineers to collect and monitor performance data from certain physical devices or logical objects to identify the status of the network. The interfaces of Performance Management include performance monitoring control, performance information retrieval, and threshold crossing alert control.

5. Abstract Control and Fine-Grain Network Management for ACTN

Abstract Control represents the high-level strategic view and objectives, while Fine-Grain Network Management represents the detailed operational tasks and activities that support the strategic objectives. Both levels are important for effective management and control within the operator network.

Abstract Control is often mapped to G.805 [G-805] objects. An Abstract Control object can also be mapped to multiple Fine-Grain Network Management objects that enable the Abstract Control object. Therefore, we should not see these concepts as mutually exclusive, but instead as necessary approaches to be combined for holistic control and operational management of ACTN-based network infrastructures.

In the context of ACTN, the MPI is both a concept and a set of mechanisms within ACTN that enable the interconnection of services across multiple domains or administrative boundaries. The MPI addresses the challenge of interconnecting services across multiple administrative domains. It provides a mechanism to coordinate and manage the service delivery between domains while ensuring end-to-end service continuity and quality.

Section 2 of this document emphasises the importance of finely configuring FCAPS capabilities for the efficient operation and troubleshooting of ACTN-based services. It is anticipated that these capabilities will necessitate detailed and precise network management functions.

5.1. Abstract Control and Fine-Grain Network Management Functions for the MPI

The Fine-Grain Network Management Functions can be categorised as follows. Several aspects of their functions already exist in the MDSC in the ACTN architecture, and are accessed via the MPI. Other functions may be added to the MPI in the future by enhancing or augmenting existing optical network YANG models or by creating new models.

  • Service Provisioning: This involves the detailed provisioning and activation of services. This includes path computation, configuring service parameters, policy management, allocating resources, and ensuring proper service activation and deactivation.
  • Network Performance Monitoring: This encompasses monitoring and analysing network performance. It involves collecting and analysing performance metrics such as latency, jitter, packet loss, and throughput to identify and resolve performance issues promptly.
  • Fault Detection and Alarm Management: This includes advanced fault detection mechanisms to identify and troubleshoot network issues quickly. It involves monitoring network elements, analysing alarms and events, and performing fault localisation and isolation to expedite problem resolution.
  • Security Management: This covers the management of security measures within the TE network. It involves activities such as access control, authentication, encryption, intrusion detection, and vulnerability management to ensure network security and protect against threats.
  • Service Level Agreement (SLA) Management: This involves tracking service performance against SLA targets, generating SLA reports, and taking corrective actions to meet or exceed customer expectations.
  • Capacity Planning: This encompasses detailed planning activities to ensure optimal resource utilisation and to meet future demands. It involves analysing traffic patterns, forecasting capacity requirements, and implementing capacity expansion strategies.

5.2. Fine-Grain Network Management Interfaces

Several legacy Fine-Grain Network Management interfaces, such as CORBA, exist to facilitate the precise control and management of network elements and services. These interfaces enable communication and interaction between different systems, devices, and management platforms:

  • Command Line Interface (CLI)

  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)


New interfaces and data models have been developed that support Fine-Grain Network Management functions. These models are written in YANG, and the interfaces use NETCONF and RESTCONF, the latter also providing RESTful API functions.

5.3. Fine-Grain Network Management Data Models

As noted in Section 5.1, new or enhanced data models may be required for Fine-Grain Network Management in ACTN-based optical networks. Figure 3 shows a functional architecture for YANG control in an ACTN system enhanced with FGNM. The existing ACTN YANG models provide access to network devices through topology models that map to inventory and thus to configuration of network devices. The old MTOSI approach provides access to inventory and device configuration.

The FGNM additions to ACTN retrieve information from the inventory including performance information viewed through the lens of topology. It also allows direct manipulation of devices through configuration of inventory items in a mirror of the MTOSI function. Lastly, fault and alarm information that is generated in respect of the inventory may be delivered direct to the FGNM system or may be correlated before being reported as incidents.

                          ------   ----------------------
                         | ACTN | |          FGNM        |
                          ------   ----------------------
                              :    ^   :            ^
                              :    :   :            :
                              :    :   :            :
                    ----------:----:-  :            :
                   |          :    : | :            :
           MTOSI   | Topology :    : | :            :
               \   |          :    : | :            :
                \   ----------:----:-  :            :
                 \            :    :   :            :
                  \           v    :   v            :
  -------------    \---------------------     -------------
 |             |   |                     |   |             |
 | Performance |---|      Inventory      |---| Fault/Alarm |
 |             |   |                     |   |             |
  -------------     ---------------------\    -------------
                             |            \
                             |             \----------
                     ---------------       |          |
                    | Configuration |      | Security |
                     ---------------       |          |
                             |              ----------

Figure 3: Functional Model of ACTN with FGNM

[I-D.yu-ccamp-te-fgnm-yang] proposes a generic FGNM extension model, which augments the TE topology model for FGNM-specific purposes. It is expected that layer-specific FGNM extensions will also be required in the future.

Additional work in the IETF exists to provide optical resource monitoring, telemetry data, alarm and incident monitoring, inventory, life cycle management, service assurance, and asset management. This existing IETF work includes:

Further work on this document will add to this list of IETF YANG data models that could provide Fine-Grain Network Management functionality, in the context of ACTN, specifically for optical networks and with particular attention to the MPI.

5.4. Fine-Grain Network Management Example

Editors note: An example of Fine-Grain Network Management of an optical network using the ACTN architecture will be provided in a future version of this document.

6. Manageability Considerations

A conventional approach to management of optical networks using MTOSI typically employs inventory and device configuration models. However, the current ACTN YANG models offer an innovative pathway to interact with network devices. They achieve this by employing topology models that correlate directly with both inventory and device configurations. To fully leverage the management infrastructure through FGNM interfaces, it is essential to develop additional resource data models. These enhancements to ACTN, specifically for optical FGNM, are anticipated to be crucial for extracting comprehensive information from the inventory, including performance metrics. Such integration would enable a comprehensive perspective on network performance and facilitate direct device manipulations by aligning inventory configurations with the foundational principles of MTOSI.

In addressing network fault issues, the system will leverage alarm data produced by the network inventory assets. This information might be directly fed into the FGNM system or undergo correlation before being flagged as incidents. This process ensures efficient troubleshooting by pinpointing the exact nature and location of network anomalies.

Moreover, security remains a paramount concern in any network setup. As such, this document dedicates the next section to security considerations, outlining several critical security requirements. These guidelines are designed to safeguard the network environment, ensuring robust protection against potential threats and vulnerabilities.

7. Security Considerations

Security measures and protocol security must be applied to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information and resources within the context of an ACTN FGNM-based system.

Key aspects of ACTN FGNM security will require:

Overall, security is crucial for maintaining the integrity and reliability of ACTN FGNM operations and support systems, especially in an environment where sensitive customer data and critical network resources are involved. It is expected that all IETF YANG documents include clear analysis of the security vulnerabilities associated with the YANG models they describe.

8. IANA Considerations

This document makes no requests for IANA action.

9. Acknowledgements

Thank you to Daniele Ceccarelli and Victor Lopez for their observations and suggestions regarding this document.


To be added as necessary.

Informative References

Object Management Group, "Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Component Model.", Standard OMG, , <>.
International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector, "ITU-T G.805, Generic functional architecture of transport networks.", Recommendation ITU-T Recommendation G.805, , <>.
Hu, T., Contreras, L. M., Graf, T., Li, Z., Wu, Q., Yu, C., Davis, N., and C. Feng, "A YANG Data Model for Network Incident Management", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-feng-nmop-network-incident-yang-01, , <>.
Galimberti, G., Hiremagalur, D., Grammel, G., Manzotti, R., and D. Breuer, "A YANG model to manage the optical interface parameters for an external transponder in a WDM network", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-ccamp-dwdm-if-param-yang-10, , <>.
de Madrid, U. A., Burrero, D. P., King, D., Lee, Y., and H. Zheng, "A YANG Data Model for Flexi-Grid Optical Networks", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-ccamp-flexigrid-yang-16, , <>.
Beller, D., Le Rouzic, E., Belotti, S., Galimberti, G., and I. Busi, "A YANG Data Model for Optical Impairment-aware Topology", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-ccamp-optical-impairment-topology-yang-15, , <>.
Zheng, H., Busi, I., Liu, X., Belotti, S., and O. G. de Dios, "A YANG Data Model for Optical Transport Network Topology", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-ccamp-otn-topo-yang-17, , <>.
Yu, C., Belotti, S., Bouquier, J., Peruzzini, F., and P. Bedard, "A YANG Data Model for Network Inventory", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-ivy-network-inventory-yang-01, , <>.
Claise, B., Quilbeuf, J., Lopez, D., Martinez-Casanueva, I. D., and T. Graf, "A Data Manifest for Contextualized Telemetry Data", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-opsawg-collected-data-manifest-03, , <>.
Palmero, M., Brockners, F., Kumar, S., Cardona, C., and D. Lopez, "Asset Lifecycle Management and Operations, Problem Statement", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-palmero-opsawg-ps-almo-00, , <>.
Yu, C., Peruzzini, F., Yanlei, Z., Busi, I., Guo, A., Lopez, V., and XingZhao, "A YANG Data Model for Optical Resource Performance Monitoring", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-yu-ccamp-optical-resource-pm-yang-03, , <>.
Yu, C. and XingZhao, "YANG Data Models for Transport TE FGNM Extension Model", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-yu-ccamp-te-fgnm-yang-00, , <>.
Yu, C., Zheng, H., Busi, I., Yanlei, Z., Lopez, V., and O. G. de Dios, "A YANG Data Model for Client Signal Performance Monitoring", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-zheng-ccamp-client-pm-yang-10, , <>.
International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector, "ITU-T M.3041, Framework of smart operation, management and maintenance.", Recommendation ITU-T Recommendation M.3041, , <>.
International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector, "ITU-T M.3060, Principles for the Management of Next Generation Networks.", Recommendation ITU-T Recommendation M.3060/Y.2401, , <>.
TeleManagment Forum (TM Forum), "The Multi-Technology Operations System Interface.", Web page TM Forum, <>.
Haleplidis, E., Ed., Pentikousis, K., Ed., Denazis, S., Hadi Salim, J., Meyer, D., and O. Koufopavlou, "Software-Defined Networking (SDN): Layers and Architecture Terminology", RFC 7426, DOI 10.17487/RFC7426, , <>.
Wu, Q., Liu, W., and A. Farrel, "Service Models Explained", RFC 8309, DOI 10.17487/RFC8309, , <>.
Ceccarelli, D., Ed. and Y. Lee, Ed., "Framework for Abstraction and Control of TE Networks (ACTN)", RFC 8453, DOI 10.17487/RFC8453, , <>.
Liu, X., Bryskin, I., Beeram, V., Saad, T., Shah, H., and O. Gonzalez de Dios, "YANG Data Model for Traffic Engineering (TE) Topologies", RFC 8795, DOI 10.17487/RFC8795, , <>.
Zheng, H., Lee, Y., Guo, A., Lopez, V., and D. King, "A YANG Data Model for Wavelength Switched Optical Networks (WSONs)", RFC 9094, DOI 10.17487/RFC9094, , <>.
Claise, B., Quilbeuf, J., Lopez, D., Voyer, D., and T. Arumugam, "Service Assurance for Intent-Based Networking Architecture", RFC 9417, DOI 10.17487/RFC9417, , <>.
Claise, B., Quilbeuf, J., Lucente, P., Fasano, P., and T. Arumugam, "A YANG Data Model for Service Assurance", RFC 9418, DOI 10.17487/RFC9418, , <>.

Authors' Addresses

Adrian Farrel
Old Dog Consulting
Daniel King
Old Dog Consulting
Xing Zhao
Chaode Yu
Huawei Technologies